Construction and Demolition Debris is one of the largest sources of waste generated in any country and is one of the main contributors of Hazardous Wastes. Test
However, just as there are methods of addressing any situation, there are also procedures or steps that can be followed in order to tackle this problem.
Construction and Demolition Debris is waste generated from a surplus of discarded building materials obtained during new construction, renovating, land clearing or land developing activities and demolition operations on houses, pavements (road), buildings, or other structures. Typical construction procedures tow and dispose the C&D materials in large amounts to endorsed landfills or facilities that specialise in transferring and separating those wastes.
In addition, there are special Construction and Demolition companies that facilitate on site separation of materials for further processing and recycling; however, there are other companies who simply pile the waste in landfills. Usually, these waste are considered naturally non-toxic, non-biodegradable and not able to dissolve in water.
There are two broad categories that Construction and Demolition Debris may fall into, one of them being bulky waste. Bulky Waste can be defined as solid waste items, case in point; appliances, furniture, trees (stumps) and a variety of outsized wastes which, primarily because of their size, pose problems for their management and normal solid waste processing, collection or dumping methods. The other category is Special Waste, these are wastes produced during C&D activities that may include particular health, safety and even environmental concerns. This may consist of substances containing lead based paint coatings (for instance; toys and furniture, siding, cabinetry, walls, glazing on pottery and ceramics), electrical components (including; microwave components, entertainment electronics, transformers, oil containing switches, computers mobile phones) etc.
There are a number of Construction and Demolition materials that may fall into the category of C&D waste some of which are: metal scraps/ aluminium, plastic, glass, soil and rock, paper, cardboard (corrugated), green waste related to land development. Yet, in addition to the previous list there are items that are specific to C&D Debris only, for instance; Aggregate, Carpet, Paint, Shingles, Wallboard (Gypsum)/ drywall, Architectural elements, Asphalt, Masonry (brick, concrete etc.), Ceiling tiles, Fibreglass bath fixtures, PVC- including pipes and buckets, Sheetrock, Sinks, toilets, and counter tops, Tile-(No asbestos), Vinyl and Aluminium Siding, Damaged Pallets, Steel, Timber/Wood-including damaged pallets, Wood doors, Wood frames-glass can be included, Wood furniture-not stuffed or plastic, Plumbing and electrical fixtures, Roofing materials, trees, tree remains (tree stumps) and other landscaping, insulation wiring, Paving material.
There are a number of ways Construction and Demolition can be reduced. First, you can start off by reducing the waste at the source. Construction companies can save tons of money by either focusing on reducing the quantity of waste created at the source or they can focus on reusing and recycling their waste materials. Recycling is the best way to help curb the waste crisis for any company. If businesses, as well as, households which produce C&D waste adopt reducing trends, then construction companies and waste companies will have less waste on their hands. Additionally, if companies find ways of reducing the C&D Debris then they will rip the benefits of decreased disposal costs; two, reduced costs for materials because less is wasted; three, lower labour costs since less material must be cut and managed; and lastly, the companies image will be enhanced since, fewer resources will be utilized and the quantity of waste sent to the landfills will be decreased.
Another means to reduce C&D Debris is by Deconstruction. Deconstruction is a meticulous process where by structures are dismantled, as opposed to being demolished; with the aim of saving or removing any useable building materials so they can be reused or recycled.
Construction and Demolition Debris can also, be reduced if Recycled-Content Construction Materials are used in placed of regular non-recyclable Products. Building materials which include re-cycled materials should be purchased, in order to support and facilitate the growth of markets for recyclable products. There are many recyclable products available on markets selves, however, they are not highly in demand possibly because the general public are insufficiently educated about their significance, or it can be that they are unaware of its existence, since these products are not advertised or labelled as ‘reuse/recycle’.
Many companies may consider recovering their C&D materials. Recovering C&D materials depend on many factors; factors which will determine whether or not these materials can or should be reused or recycled. These factors may include; the nature of the project, the time authorized for completion of the project, the skills of the labour force (especially contractors), accessible space on site, the availability of markets for materials, and the cost-effectiveness of recovery.